(1) Every person has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law decided in a fair and public hearing before a court or, if appropriate, another independent and impartial tribunal or body.
(2) Every accused person has the right to a fair trial, which includes the right–
- (a) to be presumed innocent until the contrary is proved;
- (b) to be informed of the charge, with sufficient detail to answer it;
- (c) to have adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence;
- (d) to a public trial before a court established under this Constitution;
- (e) to have the trial begin and conclude without unreasonable delay;
- (f) to be present when being tried, unless the conduct of the accused person makes it impossible for the trial to proceed;
- (g) to choose, and be represented by, an advocate, and to be informed of this right promptly;
- (h) to have an advocate assigned to the accused person by the State and at State expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly;
- (i) to remain silent, and not to testify during the proceedings;
- (j) to be informed in advance of the evidence the prosecution intends to rely on, and to have reasonable access to that evidence;
- (k) to adduce and challenge evidence;
- (l) to refuse to give self-incriminating evidence;
- (m) to have the assistance of an interpreter without payment if the accused person cannot understand the language used at the trial;
- (n) not to be convicted for an act or omission that at the time it was committed or omitted was not–
- (i) an offence in Kenya; or
- (ii) a crime under international law;
- (o) not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which the accused person has previously been either acquitted or convicted;
- (p) to the benefit of the least severe of the prescribed punishments for an offence, if the prescribed punishment for the offence has been changed between the time that the offence was committed and the time of sentencing; and
- (q) if convicted, to appeal to, or apply for review by, a higher court as prescribed by law.
(3) If this Article requires information to be given to a person, the information shall be given in language that the person understands.
(4) Evidence obtained in a manner that violates any right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights shall be excluded if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair, or would otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice.
(5) An accused person–
- (a) charged with an offence, other than an offence that the court may try by summary procedures, is entitled during the trial to a copy of the record of the proceedings of the trial on request; and
- (b) has the right to a copy of the record of the proceedings within a reasonable period after they are concluded, in return for a reasonable fee as prescribed by law.
(6) A person who is convicted of a criminal offence may petition the High Court for a new trial if–
- (a) the person’s appeal, if any, has been dismissed by the highest court to which the person is entitled to appeal,or the person did not appeal within the time allowed for appeal; and
- (b) new and compelling evidence has become available.
(7) In the interest of justice, a court may allow an intermediary to assist a complainant or an accused person to communicate with the court.
(8) This Article does not prevent the exclusion of the press or other members of the public from any proceedings if the exclusion is necessary, in a free and democratic society, to protect witnesses or vulnerable persons, morality, public order or national security.
(9) Parliament shall enact legislation providing for the protection, rights and welfare of victims of offences.